Nicolas Schöffer was one of the truly innovative artists whose theoretical and practical influence on present day art is remarkable. Born in Hungary and active in Paris since 1936, he developed theories of spatiodynamism (1948), luminodynamism (1957), and chronodynamism(1959) which challenged earlier notions of static viewing of sculpture. From his first cybernetic sculpture CYSP 1 (1956) through the later ballet inspired cybernetic Light Tower in the city of Liège and various other public sculptures in the 1970s, he worked independent of art trends and labels at the time. His dynamic cybernetic constructions worked at the borderline of science, electronics, mathematics, and art, constantly altering their aesthetic features. His career as creator-innovator includes sculpture, architecture, urbanism, total theatre, tapestry, film/video, music, teaching and books.